The International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) was established in 1989 to design, test, and disseminate effective strategies to improve the way drugs are prescribed, dispensed, and used, with a particular emphasis on resource poor countries. The network now comprises 22 groups, seven from Africa(Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe), nine from Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India/Delhi, India/Tamil Nadu, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines and Thailand)and Latin America (Peru), and other groups from the World Health Organization/Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, the Harvard Medical School Department of Ambulatory Care, the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, the University of Newcastle in Australia, and a secretariat based in Management Sciences for Health in the United States.INRUD, Nepal a member of the network is registered with the government since 1995. It has been involved in various activities related to promoting rational drug use in Nepal. It has carried out baseline studies including

  • drug use indicators in four districts,
  • promoting safe dispensing and appropriate referral for diarrhoea, ARI , and pregnancy by retail drug sellers in 12 districts,
  • consumer drug use in 9 Terai districts
  • district drug management study in 4 districts.
  • health seeking behaviour of community and treatment practices of healthcare provider in Sarlahi and Kanchanpur districts for Kala-azar and Malaria.
  • National Chest Hospital or National Hospital for Diseases of Respiratory System, National Tuberculosis Centre(NTC).
  • pricing method and price of top selling eight medicine from Nepalese manufacturers.

It also carried out following intervention studies

  • test of training and supervision on prescribing practices randomized controlled intervention in 9 Terai districts,
  • test of training and supervision on dispensing practices-randomized controlled intervention in 9 Terai districts,
  • impact of action-oriented training and audit-feedback on safe dispensing, correct advice and appropriate referral by retail drug sellers for diarrhoea, ARI, and pregnancy-randomized controlled intervention in 12 districts,
  • test of strategies for implementing Standard Treatment Schedule in improving use of drugs-randomized controlled intervention in 9 districts,
  • knowledge and practices of retail drug sellers in three districts from Kali Gandaki Valley for diarrohea, ARI, and pregnancy.
  • training private sector pharmacists/pharmacy personnel on diarrhoea treatment practices and usage of zinc in Nepal,
  • educating community members in improving use of medicines,
  • training private sector pharmacists and chemist on malaria diagnosis,treatment and prevention.

Other Activites:

  • involved in field-testing of INRUD/WHO Rational Drug Use Indicators.
  • conduction of sixteen national training courses on Rational Use of Drugs at different regions of the country. Altogether 450 participants including medical doctors, public health officers, paramedical health workers, health care manager from government and non-government organization, and teachers from medical colleges. Training courses on rational use of drugs conducted in collaboration with government institutions, bilateral and multilateral organizations and INGO including Nepal Health Research Council, DHO (Ramechhap), DPHOs (Kailali & Chitwan), UNICEF, RHDP/SDC, CBDM/HSSP/GTZ, PLAN International and BNMT.
  • revision of the training manuals for prescribers, dispensers, supervisors, storekeepers and community health workers for use in the Community Drug Programme(CDP/MOH/MLD/UNICEF,
  • development of training and trainers manuals for training on district,health post and sub health post level health workers on monitoring and supervisionfor drug use and management, DHS/MOHP
  • two international training courses on Promoting Rational Drug Use organized in Kathmandu.
The organization has published/disseminated the findings from the activities in the national and international journals and conferences. The national trainig course is organised by raising course fee. The international course is also run by the course fee from different organizations.